Morphological operations process images based on shapes. It applies a structuring element defined by a shape (2D SQUARE, 2D CIRCLE, 3D CUBE, 3D CROSS and 3D SPHERE) and a size in pixels.
Erosion removes pixels on object boundaries, darkens small bright areas, and very small bright areas like noise spikes or small spurs might be totally removed.
Dilation adds pixels to the boundaries, brightens small dark areas, and very small dark spots might be totally removed.
Opening (Erosion-Dilation) removes small objects from an image while preserving the shape and size of larger objects in the image. It darkens small bright areas, and may entirely remove very small bright spots like noise spikes.
Closing (Dilation-Erosion) brightens small dark areas, and may entirely remove very small dark spots.
Close Open combines the effect of an opening and a closing.
Deblur is a sharpening filter based on an erosion and a dilation.
In gradient uses an erosion to enhance edges in the image towards the inner.
Out gradient uses a dilation to enhance edges in the image towards the inner.